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## Convert mole/day [mol/d] to centimole/second [cmol/s]

1 mole/day [mol/d] = 0.00115740740740741 centimole/second [cmol/s]

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Mole

Molar, Mass, and Volume Flow Rates

Measuring Molar Flow Rate

## Mole

The mole is the base SI unit for the amount of substance, which corresponds to the mass of a substance that contains 6.02214076 × 10²³ representative particles of the substance. Representative particles can be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or formula units.

The concept of the molar mass of an element or a substance is related to the concept of a mole. The molar mass of an element is its atomic mass expressed in grams. For all practical purposes, it is equal to the average mass of one mole of atoms of that element. For example, the molar mass of oxygen as a substance O₂ is 32 g/mol. At the same time, the molar mass of oxygen as a chemical element is 16 g/mol. 10 moles of oxygen as a substance is equivalent to 10 × 32 g/mol = 320 g.

The molar mass of a chemical compound is calculated by multiplying the molar mass of each element of the compound by the number of atoms in the compound formula and adding all the results together. For example, the molar mass of water H₂O is 2 × 1 + 16 = 18 g/mol (approximately).

## Molar, Mass, and Volume Flow Rates

In fluid dynamics and chemical engineering, the molar flow rate is the amount of substance in moles (in other words, the number of molecules), which passes through a given cross-sectional area of a flow perpendicular to it per unit of time. In SI units, its unit is a mole per second. Kilomole per hour and millimole per minute are also commonly used. Because the molar flow rate is the rate of flow of particles, it can be compared to electric current, which is the rate of flow of electric charge. The concept of molar flow rate is also similar to that of a mass flow rate, which is the mass of a substance, which passes per unit of time.

Molar flow rate is defined as a time derivative of the amount of substance in moles *n*

By analogy with mass flow rate, which is denoted by *ṁ*, molar flow rate is denoted by *ṅ* (n-dot) where the over-dot stands for the time derivative in Newton’s notation. Using moles instead of mass allows writing material balances in terms of chemical reactions and stoichiometry. At the same time, it should be noted that, unlike mass, total moles are not conserved. For example, consider the reaction of combustion of ethane

In this reaction, 12 atoms of hydrogen, 4 atoms of carbon, and 14 atoms of oxygen are present before and after the reaction. The total mass before and after the reaction is the same, that is, the mass is preserved. At the same time, this reaction consumes 9 moles of reactants for every 11 moles of products produced. Therefore, the total number of moles entering the reaction will be less than the number of moles leaving it.

## Measuring Molar Flow Rate

The volumetric flow rate *V̇* is usually the easiest to measure. The measured volumetric flow rate can be converted to mass flow rate *ṁ*:

where *ρ* is the density. Then it can be further converted into molar flow rate because it is impossible to measure moles directly. Devices for flow rate measurement are discussed in our Mass Flow Rate and Volumetric Flow Rate converters. Many of them really measure not the volume or mass, but the velocity *v* of fluid of known density and composition that moves through a constrained cross-sectional area of the measuring device. The velocity is then used for calculation of volumetric flow rate *V̇* using the assumption that the velocity distribution is uniform:

where *A* is the cross-sectional area and *v* is the flow velocity:

where *l* is the length of the fluid cylinder moving in a pipe and *t* is the time.

Since the fluid composition, its density, and cross-sectional area are known, the molar rate can be calculated by multiplying the volumetric flow rate *V̇* by the density and dividing by the molecular mass. Of course, in the case of a solution, we need to know the average molecular mass of the solution, which can be calculated from the molecular masses and mole fractions of the individual components. In the case of gaseous mixtures, we need to know the temperature and pressure of the gases.

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This article was written by Anatoly Zolotkov

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Online Unit Converters Hydraulics — Fluids

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### Hydraulics — Fluids

**Hydraulics** is a field of applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Hydraulics focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. **Fluid mechanics** is the branch of physics that studies fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion.

### Molar Flow Rate Converter

**Molar flow rate** of a fluid is the number of moles of a solution or mixture, which passes through a given area per unit of time.

In SI, its unit is mole per second (mol/s).

### Using the Molar Flow Rate Converter Converter

This online unit converter allows quick and accurate conversion between many units of measure, from one system to another. The Unit Conversion page provides a solution for engineers, translators, and for anyone whose activities require working with quantities measured in different units.

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You can use this online converter to convert between several hundred units (including metric, British and American) in 76 categories, or several thousand pairs including acceleration, area, electrical, energy, force, length, light, mass, mass flow, density, specific volume, power, pressure, stress, temperature, time, torque, velocity, viscosity, volume and capacity, volume flow, and more. **Note:** Integers (numbers without a decimal period or exponent notation) are considered accurate up to 15 digits and the maximum number of digits after the decimal point is 10.

In this calculator, E notation is used to represent numbers that are too small or too large. **E notation** is an alternative format of the scientific notation a · 10^{x}. For example: 1,103,000 = 1.103 · 10^{6} = 1.103E+6. Here E (from exponent) represents “· 10^”, that is “*times ten raised to the power of*”. E-notation is commonly used in calculators and by scientists, mathematicians and engineers.

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