ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (2022)

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (1)

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON THEM! © Copyright Amy Brown – Science Stuff, March 2012

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (2)

chemical reactions Life depends upon the __________ that occur within the cell. Living organisms undergo thousands of chemical reactions as part of their life processes. Enzymes …. Amazing topic! Let’s get started!! These reactions are important to the: growth, development and the very survival of a cell. The reactions of a cell involve both the _______ building of molecules, breaking down of molecules. and the ___________ SPEED!! of these The role of enzymes is to greatly enhance the ______ reactions.

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A chemical reaction is a process that: changes one set of molecules into a new set of substances. A chemical reaction occurs when chemical bonds broken or _____, formed between atoms are ____ resulting in or more new substances the productionone of _______________. Reactants: The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction. Products: The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction. Chemical Reactions

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Chemical reactions always involve changes in the chemical bonds _________ that join atoms together in compounds. Examples: 1. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 reactants products 2. 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O + O 2 reactant products Bonds are first broken. Atoms are then rearranged to form new substances.

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Whenever chemical bonds form or are broken, energy will be released or absorbed ___________ __. The forming and breaking of bonds involves changes in energy. Energy in Reactions Some chemical reactions ____ absorb energy. Other chemical reactions _____ energy. release

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Living organisms carry out a great variety of chemical reactions. Many of these reactions release energy, while many others absorb energy. Regardless of whether energy is released or absorbed by the reaction, starting the chemical reaction: requires an initial investment in energy. In order for the reaction’s _____ products to form, existing _________ chemical bonds in the reactants must first be ____. broken energy This will require ____.

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (7)

Activation Energy 1. The energy needed by the reactants in order to start a reaction. 2. It is the initial investment of energy for starting a reaction. 3. It is the energy required to break bonds in the reactant molecules.

(Video) Enzymes (Updated)

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1. The reactants have less energy than the products. 2. The bonds of the reactant _____ molecules will have to be broken. New bonds will be formed during the formation of the _____. products Energy-Absorbing Reactions products Activation energy reactants This reaction requires more energy than it gives off.

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4. An example of an energy absorbing reaction in living cells is the process of ________. photosynthesis The reactants are CO 2 and H 20 _______. These reactants have ____ less energy than the product, which glucose is _____. Glucose Activation energy CO 2 and H 20 The energy that is absorbed by the reactants is stored in the bonds forming the glucose molecules.

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1. The reactants have more energy than the products. 2. An energy investment will still be required in order to break the bonds in the reactants. Energy-Releasing Reactions Activation Energy Reactants Products This reaction gives off more energy than it requires.

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Energy-Releasing Reactions The activation energy is the amount of energy that must be…. Activation Energy Reactants Products ……absorbed by the reactants in order to break the bonds holding the atoms together.

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4. An example of an energy releasing reaction in living cells is the process of ______. respiration The reactants are: glucose and oxygen. It will require a small investment _______ of energy (activation energy) in order to break the bonds of glucose. Glucose and O 2 Activation Energy CO 2 and H 20 However, once the reaction begins, more energy will be released than was required to start the reaction.

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This activation energy is heat usually in the form of _____ that the reactant molecules absorb from the surroundings _______. The bonds of the reactants break only when the molecules have: absorbed enough energy to become unstable. Activation energy is the amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier or "hill" so that the "downhill" part of the reaction can begin.

(Video) Enzymes and Activation Energy

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Many of the chemical reactions of slowly a cell proceed too _______ to be of use to the cell. The activation energy required for these reactions is simply too ______. high The cell must have a way to make these reactions occur ____ and at lower faster temperatures ________. How is this done? ? ?

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ENZYMES What are enzymes? A. Enzymes are: organic molecules that act as catalysts. 1. A catalyst is: a substance that will make a chemical reaction take place more rapidly and at a lower temperature. 2. Enzymes are _____ that act as proteins __________. biological catalysts 3. Enzymes are essential for the functioning of any cell.

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Enzymes _______ up the chemical speed reactions _____ that take place inside _____. cells Many of the reactions inside cells take place: too slowly to be of any use to the cell. ENZYME S: Lower the activation energy for a chemical reaction.

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Lowering the activation energy makes the reaction take place much faster _______ and at a: lower temperature. die Without enzymes, cells would soon ____. The chemical reactions required in living cells would take place too…. . slowly to keep the cell functioning. Example: Sucrose will spontaneously break down into ___________, but it will glucose and fructose take ______ to do so. If a small amount of the years sucrase enzyme _____ is added to the solution, all of the sucrose will be broken down within _____. seconds

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Enzymes are so _____ specific for their substrate that they can only catalyze In the one____________. chemical reaction above example, sucrose speeds up the breakdown of sucrose, and it can do no other job. Because enzymes are so specific, their name is usually derived from: …. the reaction they catalyze. What does the enzyme lactase do? It speeds up the breakdown of the disaccharide sugar, lactose, into the individual sugars, galactose and sucrose.

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Comparison of Enzymes and Catalysts Enzymes 1. Enzymes are proteins. 2. Enzymes are specific for just one reaction. 3. Each enzyme has an optimum temperature at which it functions best. 4. Enzymes require water to function. 5. Enzymes are not consumed or used up during the reaction. Catalysts 1. Catalysts are not proteins. 2. Catalysts will speed up many different reactions. They are not specific. 3. Catalysts are not affected by temperature. They generally work at any temperature. 4. Catalysts do not require water. 5. Catalysts are not consumed or used up during the reaction.

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (21)

How Enzymes Work This is a simple equation illustrating how an enzyme works: Enzyme Substrat e Enzyme. Substrat e Complex Enzyme New Products Substrate: The reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The enzyme will speed up the conversion of the substrate to new and different products.

(Video) Enzymes I

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (22)

How Enzymes Work This is a simple equation illustrating how an enzyme works: Active site Enzyme Substrat e Enzyme. Substrat e Complex Enzymes have: a pocket or groove into which the substrate(s) must fit. Enzyme New Products The pocket or indentation is called the: active site.

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How Enzymes Work This is a simple equation illustrating how an enzyme works: Enzyme Substrat e Enzyme. Substrat e Complex Enzyme New Products For the enzyme to speed up the reaction, there complimentary fit between the must be a ____________ enzyme and its _______ substrate molecule. The fit is so precise that the active site and lock and key substrates are often compared to a “________”.

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How Enzymes Work This is a simple equation illustrating how an enzyme works: Enzyme Substrat e Enzyme. Substrat e Complex Enzyme New Products Intermolecular forces bind the enzyme and substrate together enzyme-substrate complex to form the ______________. They remain bound together until the reaction reaches completion. During the enzyme-substrate complex, the bonds: of the reactants are broken and new substances are formed.

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How Enzymes Work This is a simple equation illustrating how an enzyme works: Enzyme Substrat e Enzyme. Substrat e Complex Enzyme New Products At the end of the reaction, the _______ new products are released. The enzyme is free to start the process again.

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Diagram of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. substrates Active site Enzymesubstrate complex The joining together of the enzyme and the substrate causes a slight change in the enzyme’s _______. shape enzyme Bonds in the reactants are broken and new bonds are formed to create new and different products. New products are formed. This shape change allows the enzyme to conform to the shape of the substrate and probably weakens some chemical bonds in the substrate, which is one way that enzymes reduce activation energy.

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Let’s summarize the facts about enzymes: 1. Enzymes are ____ proteins that speed up the ___________ of chemical reactions the cell. An enzyme may accelerate a reaction by making it happen 10, 000, 000 times faster! This means that a reaction that would take 1, 500 years to complete without the enzyme can be completed in just 5 seconds with the enzyme.

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Let’s summarize the facts about enzymes: 2. Enzymes do not… …cause reactions to happen. They simply speed up reactions that will already occur _______. 3. Enzymes make reactions faster take place _______ and at lower temperatures ___________.

(Video) Enzymes - Chapter 4: Concepts of Biology (Reading Only)

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Let’s summarize the facts about enzymes: 4. Without enzymes the reactions of the cell would proceed so slowly that the cell _____ die would _____. 5. Enzymes are very specific _____. They can only carryone out job ____, but they do that one job extremely well.

ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON (30)

Let’s summarize the facts about enzymes: 6. Enzymes are never _____ in the used up reaction. They can be used ________ again. over and over 7. 2000 enzymes are now known. Each is responsible for a specific chemical reaction

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Let’s summarize the facts about enzymes: 8. The shape of the enzyme is so _____ that specific substrate only one shaped _____ can fit. 9. A specific enzyme is required for each reaction in a cell. 10. Enzymes catalyze … …both the forward and the reverse of the same reaction.

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Factors that affect enzyme functioning: Anything that changes shape of the _______ enzyme will affect: the ability of the enzyme to function. Every enzyme has an optimum temperature at which it will function the best. One factor that affects enzyme functioning is ________. temperature

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Factors that affect enzyme functioning: For most enzymes, the optimum 35 - 40° Celsius. temperature is ____ If the temperature exceeds the optimum, denatured the enzyme may become ______. The bonds that determine the shape of the enzyme are altered, changing: the shape of the enzyme.

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Factors that affect enzyme functioning: Substrate E n z y. Functioning menzyme e Excessive heat Substrate Denatured enzyme A ______ enzyme has lost its particular denatured shape. It no longer has a _________ to its complimentary fit substrate _____. When an enzyme is denatured, it cannot function or participate _____________ in the chemical reaction.

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Factors that affect enzyme functioning: Another factor that affects enzyme activity is ____. p. H Every enzyme has an optimum p. H at which it functions the best. A p. H value outside of this range can cause the enzyme to denature. As you might expect, most enzymes function best in a 6 to 8 Exceptions to this are the p. H range of ______. stomach enzymes found in the _____. These enzymes function best at a p. H level of around _______. At a 2 to 3 neutral p. H, these enzymes would be denatured.

(Video) Podcast Episode 221: Food Allergies and Your Gut Bacteria

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Created by Amy Brown – Science Stuff Copyright © March 2012 Amy Brown (aka Science Stuff) All rights reserved by author. This document is for your classroom use only. This document may not be electronically distributed or posted to a web site. ENZYMES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS LIVING CELLS DEPEND ON THEM!

FAQs

What do enzyme functions depend on? ›

Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy needed to start biochemical reactions. The activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.

What enzymes affect chemical reactions in living organisms by? ›

Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells. Enzymes act by lowering the activation energies, which has a dramatic effect on how quickly reactions are completed.

How do enzymes affect chemical reactions in living cells? ›

Enzymes in our bodies are catalysts that speed up reactions by helping to lower the activation energy needed to start a reaction. Each enzyme molecule has a special place called the active site where another molecule, called the substrate, fits.

How do enzymes work in living cells? ›

Enzymes speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions in cells. More specifically, they lower the threshold necessary to start the intended reaction. They do this by binding to another substance known as a substrate.

What are the 4 factors that affect enzyme activity? ›

Several factors affect the rate at which enzymatic reactions proceed - temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and the presence of any inhibitors or activators.

What are the requirements for an enzyme to function efficiently? ›

A temperature of around 37°C and a pH level of 7 produces the optimal environment for enzymes to function in humans. Under these conditions, enzyme function is optimum, meaning that the enzyme is most active and efficient in terms of reaction rate and product formation.

Which chemical reaction occurs in living things? ›

Chemical reactions that take place inside living things are called biochemical reactions. The sum of all the biochemical reactions in an organism is referred to as metabolism.

What are enzymes what are their roles in chemical reactions quizlet? ›

Enzymes are biological catalysts (accelerators of chemical reaction without possibility to be consumed by chemical process. Their role is to expedite cells chemical reactions by lowering activation energy which is vital for proper functioning of an organism.

How does an enzyme influence a chemical reaction in a cell quizlet? ›

Enzymes are catalysts, so they affect activation energy by decreasing the required amount of activation energy allowing chemical reactions to occur or speed up.

How does an enzyme affect the rate of a chemical reaction quizlet? ›

Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering activation energy, the lower the activation energy for a reaction, the faster the rate.

Where do chemical reactions in a cell take place? ›

Most of the chemical reactions in a cell take place in the cytoplasm. It is a jelly-like substance enclosed by the cell membrane. It consists of all the organelles that carry out speciic functions and all the chemical reactions take place here in cytoplasm.

How are enzymes produced in cells? ›

Enzymes are made from amino acids, and they are proteins. When an enzyme is formed, it is made by stringing together between 100 and 1,000 amino acids in a very specific and unique order. The chain of amino acids then folds into a unique shape.

Where are enzymes found in living organisms? ›

Enzymes are large proteins and, like other proteins, they are produced in living cells of plants, animals and microorganisms. All living organisms require enzymes for growth and for the production andutilization of energy which is essential for life.

Why are enzymes important in living organisms? ›

Importance of Enzymes

Enzymes allow reactions to occur at the rate necessary for life. In animals, an important function of enzymes is to help digest food. Digestive enzymes speedup reactions that break down large molecules of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into smaller molecules the body can use.

What are the 7 factors that affect enzyme function? ›

Table of Contents
  • Factor # 1. Temperature:
  • Factor # 2. Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH):
  • Factor # 3. Water:
  • Factor # 4. Concentration of the Substrate:
  • Factor # 5. Enzyme Concentration:
  • Factor # 6. Inhibitors:
  • Factor # 7. Accumulation of End-Products:

What two factors affect enzyme action? ›

Enzyme activity is affected by various factors, including substrate concentration and the presence of inhibiting molecules. The rate of an enzymatic reaction increases with increased substrate concentration, reaching maximum velocity when all active sites of the enzyme molecules are engaged.

What factors affect the rate of reaction in an enzyme? ›

There are several factors that affect the speed of an enzyme's action, such as the concentration of the enzyme, the concentration of the substrate, temperature, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), and the presence of inhibitors.

What conditions must be in place in order for enzymes and hormones to function properly? ›

The importance of homeostasis. Enzymes are proteins that catalyse (speed up) vital chemical reactions inside the body. Enzymes will only function properly under a small range of certain conditions, such as preferred pH and temperature. If any conditions are outside their specific range then the enzymes cannot function.

Which of the following can cause enzyme activity to either increase or decrease? ›

chapter 23
QuestionAnswer
Which of the following can cause enzyme activity to either increase or decrease?both a and b,(ph and temp?.)
What term is used to describe a species which affects the functioning of an allosteric enzyme?regulator
31 more rows

What are 3 factors that affect the rate of a reaction? ›

surface area of a solid reactant. concentration or pressure of a reactant. temperature. nature of the reactants.

What factors increase the rate of a chemical reaction quizlet? ›

Terms in this set (4)
  • Temperature. The kinetic energy of molecules, which in turn move more rapidly and collide more forcefully.
  • Concentration of reacting particles. the umber of collisions because of increased numbers of reacting particles.
  • Particle size. ...
  • Presence of catalysts.

What causes a chemical reaction? ›

Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds between atoms are formed or broken. The substances that go into a chemical reaction are called the reactants, and the substances produced at the end of the reaction are known as the products.

Why are chemical reactions important to living things? ›

Chemical reactions are crucial for our cells to make energy, or ATP. All living things need energy to survive and ATP is actually a reactant that drives many other chemical reactions inside cells. Cells use a process called cellular respiration to make energy.

Do chemical reactions occur only in living organisms? ›

Not all chemical reactions occur in living organisms.

How are proteins related to chemical reactions in living things? ›

Proteins called enzymes are organic catalysts. This means that they can speed up chemical reactions in a cell. Enzymes work to reduce the activation energy required for a reaction to proceed. An enzyme can do this by bringing reactants together, arranging atoms in the reactants, or excluding water.

What three factors affect enzymes? ›

Enzyme activity can be affected by a variety of factors, such as temperature, pH, and concentration. Enzymes work best within specific temperature and pH ranges, and sub-optimal conditions can cause an enzyme to lose its ability to bind to a substrate.

Which best describes the role of enzymes in a chemical reaction? ›

Which one of the following statements best describes the role of enzymes in chemical reactions? Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering their activation energy, allowing the reaction to proceed more rapidly or to proceed at all.

Which of the following best describes the role of enzymes during a chemical reaction? ›

Which of the following best describes the function of enzymes? Enzymes lower the activation energy level of a chemical reaction, thus making it so the reaction will proceed.

What are the main 3 functions of an enzyme? ›

The function of enzymes is to carry out critical tasks. These involve muscle growth, removing toxins, and tearing down the molecules in food throughout digestion.

What is the function of an enzyme quizlet? ›

what is the function of enzymes? to act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy, meaning reactions can happen at lower temperatures than normal.

What are all the functions of enzymes? ›

Enzymes catalyze all kinds of chemical reactions that are involved in growth, blood coagulation, healing, diseases, breathing, digestion, reproduction, and many other biological activities. On biological aspects, enzymes are instrumental substances to many functions in living organisms.

What is an enzyme and how does it function? ›

An enzyme is a type of protein found within a cell. Enzymes create chemical reactions in the body, and can actually speed up the rate of a chemical reaction to help support life. Enzymes are produced naturally in the body and help with important tasks, including: building muscle.

What is an enzyme made of? ›

Enzymes are proteins comprised of amino acids linked together in one or more polypeptide chains. This sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is called the primary structure. This, in turn, determines the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, including the shape of the active site.

Where are enzymes produced? ›

Your stomach, small intestine and pancreas all make digestive enzymes. The pancreas is really the enzyme “powerhouse” of digestion. It produces the most important digestive enzymes, which are those that break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

What is an enzyme in biology? ›

An enzyme is a biological catalyst and is almost always a protein. It speeds up the rate of a specific chemical reaction in the cell. The enzyme is not destroyed during the reaction and is used over and over.

What 2 factors affect an enzyme rate of reaction? ›

Factors affecting enzyme activity

Temperature: Raising temperature generally speeds up a reaction, and lowering temperature slows down a reaction. However, extreme high temperatures can cause an enzyme to lose its shape (denature) and stop working. pH: Each enzyme has an optimum pH range.

Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? ›

Enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up biochemical reactions. According to the most widely accepted theory, enzymes bind to the substrate molecule and form a transition state. During the progress of a reaction the substrates are separated from products by an energy barrier which the substrates need to cross.

What statements describe enzymes? ›

Which statement describes enzymes? Enzymes can be recycled and used over and over again. what is the source of chemical energy used to power a muscle cell in your arm?

How does the body make enzymes? ›

Our body makes our metabolic enzymes from the complete amino acid food we ingest. Complete amino acids are only found in animal products. It takes a combination of many plant products to make a complete amino source, and these sources are usually processed or heated, destroying the enzymes.

What are some enzymes in the human body? ›

The enzyme types used today for industrial processes can be found in the human body: e.g. protease, lipase and amylase. Enzymes play an essential role in each living cell of our body – whether they are organs, muscles, bones, nerves, etc.

How are enzymes formed? ›

Enzymes are made from amino acids, and they are proteins. When an enzyme is formed, it is made by stringing together between 100 and 1,000 amino acids in a very specific and unique order. The chain of amino acids then folds into a unique shape.

Why are enzymes important to cells? ›

A fundamental task of proteins is to act as enzymes—catalysts that increase the rate of virtually all the chemical reactions within cells. Although RNAs are capable of catalyzing some reactions, most biological reactions are catalyzed by proteins.

What are the characteristics of enzymes in biology? ›

Characteristics of an Enzyme :
  • Speed up chemical reactions.
  • They are required in minute amounts.
  • They are highly specific in their action.
  • They are affected by temperature.
  • They are affected by pH.
  • Some catalyze reversible reactions.
  • Some require coenzymes.
  • They are inhibited by inhibitors.

What are most enzymes in living things made up of? ›

Unique. Like all proteins, enzymes are made of strings of amino acids chemically bonded to one another. These bonds give each enzyme a unique structure, which determines its function.

Videos

1. Lesson Video - Enzymes
(Ms. Romani's Biology Class)
2. Lesson Video - Enzymes
(Ms. Romani's Biology Class)
3. Biology 03-7 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
(Samuel Holloway)
4. How Enzymes Work
(RicochetScience)
5. Internal Membranes & Enzymes
(Jesse Callan)
6. The power of enzymes
(Brewing with Enzymes)

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